The Illusive Search for Truth in the Biblical Foundations of Judaism and Christianity

Christian apologists will find themselves relying of on faith, theological dogmas and outright denials as they attempt to deal with the following facts.

Plus (to further prove my case) I have then listed 295 sacred Jewish and Christian texts of which the bulk of these are Jewish works which were produced at the very time the Jesus myth was emerging. While the Jews could only present their God in terms of past events, Christianity quickly learned that miraculous present events won converts.

Fact 1: Late Dates for All the "Early" Theological Claims of Judaism and Christianity

Of the 23,145 verses in the Old Testament, not one single verse of the entire Bible is older than 250 BCE or more likely, the entire collection is post 200 BCE! Though some have tried to use the Elephantine Papyri (a non-canonical work) to prove a pre 250 BCE date, still others point to a priestly blessing inscribed on two very small silver scrolls reminiscent of the blessing in Numbers 6: 24-26 from a cemetery at Ketef Hinnom, yet they have failed to secure an early date for this crypt text in that the sepulcher where it was found had been in continual active use until the 1st century CE. (1)  Secondly, Emanuel Tov states in regards to these small texts:  “Since these two documents are not biblical texts, their contribution to textual criticism is limited.” (2)

Secondly, of the 7,958 verses that compose the New Testament, there is no papyrus or vellum manuscript to support a historical origin for one single verse written before 180 CE. The claim that five verses from the Gospel of John (John Ryland’s Papyrus P 52) dates to 125 CE has been recently rightly contested. (3) Thus, while the Gospels have popular scholarly support for a pre 180 CE date, there is no textual evidence to back up this claim! Like the Hebrew Bible, the claim for a 65 -70 CE Gospel of Mark all the way though the Synoptic Gospels to a 90 CE date for the Gospel of John is done just like the dating of the Documentary Hypothesis or what is known as a “guess” based on Form Criticism and NOT textual data.

 Finally, even though the Gospel of Thomas (one source used to construct Q) was translated into Coptic around 350 CE, its Greek base can NOT be textually located earlier than papyrus fragments dating from the first half of the 3rd century CE! Thus, as a general rule, we might simplify this point and make it easy to remember by noting that there are no manuscripts of the Old Testament before 200 BCE or of the New Testament before 200 CE!

Fact 2: Lies Used to Prove Lies: Forged Books by Unknown Authors Used to Vindicate Theological “Truth"

Other than the so-called sevenGenuine Letters of Paul”, the rest of the entire 59 books of the Bible are all pseudepigraphic works no different than the 295 “books” listed below. Much of this material was in a state of change as it was expanded (such as we find when the text of Jeremiah in the MT is compared to that of the LXX) or as these late works were continually re-adapted (re-edited) to a changing historical and theological climate throughout Greco-Roman Palestine.

After the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE and especially with the expulsion of the Jews from Palestine after the failed Bar Cochba Revolt in 135 CE, Christians seized the chance to literally steal Jewish texts, reworking them with pro-Christian interpolations such as the case is with the Odes of Solomon (just to name but one example). In light of this proven Christian dishonesty of wholesale plagiarism of Jewish texts for Christian theological propaganda, it is little wonder that the so-called Testimonium Flavianum in Josephus is yet little more than another example of continuing Christian forgeries planted to prove the existence of Jesus as the Christ. Ironically, An apple (Christianitydoesn't fall to far from the tree (Judaism) as this early invented Jewish literature is anachronistic based for apologetic purposes in that its intent was to prove that Jewish orthodoxy always had been the norm in this fabricated historical reality called Ancient Israel.

Finally (on the theological and doctrinal side) oddly forging Biblical texts is never condemned! This is likely due to the fact that both Jewish and Christian forgers - while pious liars (but never-the-less theists) - would doctrinally be condemning themselves should they have invented a sacred story about God punishing Biblical forgers. This system of pious lying to gain credence and converts for Christianity was epidemic throughout Church history as example after example is proven not only in the hagiographies or lives of the saints (4), but also serves as the very foundation for the 15 million LDS “Mormon” Church’s Book of Mormon and Pearl of Great Price.

Fact 3: Inventing Reality: The Term "Canon" Was Used to Systematize Lies and Empower the Late Political Religious Tyranny of "orthodoxy"

The term canon is a deceptive man made invention used to create an orthodox God and theology.

The proof text cited by Christian conservatives (taken out of context) to give special authority to this very limited Biblical Canon is 2 Timothy 3:16:

All (πᾶσα / every) scripture (γραφὴ / writing) is given by inspiration of God (θεόπνευστος / god breathed) and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness." Thus, all the texts below are inspired by God himself!

While later orthodoxy would never think of giving canonical credence to books of the Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, authors of many of parts the New Testament swallowed the false authorship and theology of these supposed "ancient" books hook, line and sinker making it clear that the Jesus (Joshua) of myth and faith emerged out of competing Jewish-Christian sects who used forged Pseudepigraphic holy books to bolster their theological case for power. (5)

The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha

(Reference: The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, 2 vols. Edited by James H Charlesworth, New York: Doubleday, 1983, 1985. Since Charlesworth’s work does not include the so-called fifteen Apocryphal Books of the Catholic tradition, one must supplement this work with the two volumes of R.H. Charles, The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament (now 100 years old) or a more up-to-date work such as Bruce Metgzer’s An Introduction to the Apocrypha, Oxford University Press, 1977 is small, affordable and up to date.)

1. Apocalypse of Abraham (1st –2nd Century CE) The archangel Michael takes Abraham on a tour of the world where he witnesses the various sins of humanity at which time Abraham calls down death on them, but is stop by God so sinners may repent.
2. Apocalypse of Adam (1st –2nd Century CE) A book on the secret revelation of Adam communicated to his son Seth.
3. Testament of Adam (2nd to 5th Century CE) Adam reveals information to Seth about the creation and fall of man and foretells the Flood, the birth, passion and death of Christ and the final end of the world. “The first hour of the night is the praise of demons; and at that hour they do not injure or harm any human being.”
4. Life of Adam and Eve (1st Century CE) A testament on the life and death of Adam and Eve after their expulsion from Eden. “When they were driven out of Paradise they made for themselves a tent and mourned for seven days, weeping and in great sorrow.
5. Letter of Aristeas (3rd Century BCE –1st Century CE) How the LXX was translated. “A trustworthy narrative has been compiled, . . .” Opens much like the Gospel of Luke.
6. Aristeas the Exegete (Pre 1st Century BCE) A reconstruction of the book of Job into a biography of Job placing him among the patriarchs.
7. Aristobulus (2nd Century BCE) A Judeo-Christian and Hellenistic theological work using Classical concepts such as the Divine Logos (Gospel of John 1)
8. Artapanus (3rd to 2nd Century BCE) Fragments preserved by Eusebius in his Praeparatio Evangelica describing the exploits in Egypt of three famous Jewish ancestors: Abraham, Joseph and Moses.
9. 1 Baruch (Pre- 70 CE) A work claiming to have been written by Jeremiah’s secretary and read before King Jehoiachin and the exiles in Babylonian.
10. 2 Baruch (Early 2nd Century CE) A book claiming to have been written at the destruction of Jerusalem in 586 CE. Its varied contents deal with lamentations, prayers, questions with answers, apocalypses with explanations and addresses to the Jews.
11. 3 Baruch (1st to 3rd Century CE) Jeremiah’s scribe, Baruch weeps over both Jerusalem and the Temple’s destruction. The mockery of the heathens causes God to send an angle to guide Baruch though the five levels of Heaven. This texts deal with the question of theodicy.
12. 4 Baruch (1st to 2nd Century CE) God’s instruction to Jeremiah before Jerusalem’s destruction by the Babylonians and Jeremiah’s death by stoning.
13. Cleodemus Malchus (pre -1st Century BCE) Fragments dealing with the descendants of Abraham by his wife Keturah as based on Genesis 25: 1-4.
14. Apocalypse of Daniel (9th Century CE) A book about the coming of the Antichrist and the end of the world. “According to the God-spoken word which says: . . .
15. More Psalms of David (3rd Century BCE –1st Century CE) More of David’s inspired Psalms: 151 – 155.
16. Demetrius the Chronographer (3rd Century) He deals with inconsistencies and obscurities in Biblical history.
17. Eldad and Modad (Pre-2nd Century CE) An account of what two Israelite prophets who prophesied in the wilderness (Numbers 11: 26 – 29).
18. Apocalypse of Elijah (1st to 4th Century CE) A composite book dealing with the following: A. An opening section on prayer and fasting. B. Prophetic section of events to happen before the Antichrist comes. C. A description of the Antichrist. D. An account of the three martyrdoms. E. Prophecies on coming events. “The word of the Lord came to me saying, . . .
19. 1 Enoch (2nd Century BCE –1st Century BE) A book concerning the eschatological era and the final judgments of both the wicked and righteous. This text builds on the antediluvian themes.
20. 2 Enoch (Late 1st Century CE) An expansion of Genesis 5: 21 – 32 covering the life of Enoch to the time of the Flood. The nit deals with his successors: Methuselah and Nir ending with the birth and ascension of Melchizedek.
21. 3 Enoch (5th Century CE) An account by Rabbi Ishmael on how he traveled to Heaven to see God’s throne and chariot, then he received revelations from the archangel, Metatron.
22. Eupolemus (Pre 1st Century BCE) Fragments from a Jewish historian who adds not Biblical expansions and traces Jewish history from Moses to King Joachim.
23. Pseudo-Eupolemus (Pre 1st Century BCE) Two quotes found in Eusebius’ Praeparatio Evangelica known for Alexander Polyhistor’‘s “On the Jews” to a Pseudo-Eupolemus about Abraham being an astrologer.
24. Revelation of Ezekiel (1st Century BCE – Frist Century CE) A treaties on the body and the soul about how a lame man and a blind man team up to destroy a king’s fruit trees for revenge, but are caught and beaten.
25. Ezekiel the Tragedian (2nd Century CE) The story of Moses re-worked and expanded.
26. Frist Book of Esdras (also known as 3rd Ezra; mid-2nd century BCE) A Greek reworking of the Hebrew Ezra cited by Josephus. 27. Fourth Book of Ezra (Late 1st Century CE) Ezra is given an eschatology concerning the future state of the dead. In 14: 37 – 48, Ezra dictates 94 inspired books (24 canonical and 70 non-canonical)
28. Greek Apocalypse of Ezra (2nd – 9th Century CE) Ezra goes to heaven and intercedes for sinners, then he goes to Hell and see sinners being punished and even sees the anti-Christ.
29. Questions of Ezra (Date Unknown) A question and answer session between God’s angel where Ezra learns about the fate of souls after death.
30. Revelations of Ezra (Pre-9th Century CE) “The author believed that the nature of the year was predetermined by the day of the week on which it began.”
31. Vision of Ezra (4th – 7th Century CE) A Christianized version of Ezra’s tour of Hell. “Grant me, O Lord, courage that I might not fear when I see the judgments of the sinners.”
32. Fragments of Pseudo-Greek Poets (3rd – 2nd Century BCE) Jewish apologetic theology.
33. Pseudo-Hecataeus (2nd Century BCE – 1st Century CE) Fragments dealing with Jewish history extolling Moses with wisdom and the Jewish state as a political utopia.
34. Hellenistic Synagogue Prayers (2nd – 3rd Century CE) Jewish prayers for use in a synagogue interpolated with Christian theology.
35. Martyrdom and Ascension of Isaiah (2nd BCE – 4 Century CE) Isaiah’s Martyrdom by Manasseh and his vision of God in the 7th Heaven. “In the twenty-sixth year of his reign Hezekiah king of Judah summoned Manasseh his son, . . .
36. Ladder of Jacob (1st Century CE) An elaboration of Jacob’s dream at Bethel (Genesis 28: 11 – 22)
37. The Prayer of Manasseh ( 3rd Century CE ) A prayer of repentance placed on lips of the King of Judah (2 Kings 21: 1-18).
38. Prayer of Jacob (1st – 4th Century CE) A testament with a prayer that claims by citing, it one gains immortality and becomes an angel upon the earth.
39. Jannes and Jambres (1st – 3rd Century CE) A testament of two of Pharaoh’s magicians whose opposed Moses. (Quoted in 2 Timothy 3: 8f)
40. Testament of Job (1st Century BCE –1st Century CE) A testimony about how as Job nears death, he divides up his estate among his sons and must deal with Satan again.

Additions to Daniel:
41. Prayer of Azariah and Song of the Three Children (1st Century BCE) The praise and prayer of the three companions of Daniel who refused to worship an image of King Nebuchadnezzar and were thrown in the furnace.
42. Susanna (1st Century BCE) A story of a beautiful Jewish wife accused of adultery, but is defended and saved from death by Daniel.
43. Bel and the Dragon (1st Century BCE) Two independent stories exposing the worthlessness and deception of idolatry.

44. Additions to Esther (125 BCE – 90 CE) Greek additional material added to the Hebrew supporting a conservative Jewish theology. (Neither the New Testament, nor the texts from Qumran quote the canonical Esther).
45. Epistle of Jeremy (2nd Century BCE ) Based on Jeremiah 29: 1 -23 it claims to be Jeremiah’s letter to the Exiles in Babylon warning them about the folly of idol worship.
46. Judith (Late 2nd to Early 1st Century BCE) A work dealing with theology of the times and not history.
47. Tobit (200 BCE) A first person biography set in the time of Shalmaneser , king of Assyria. A pious story about keeping the Torah in exile.
48. Testament of Abraham (1st –2nd Century CE) A Testament dealing with events in the life of Abraham before his death.
49. Testament of Isaac (2nd Century CE) A book about the archangel Michael’s preaching on the futility of this life and the glorious rewards God promises the faith in Heaven. “In the name of the Father, the son, and the Holy Spirit, the God.”
50. Testament of Jacob (2nd to 3rd Century CE) Jacob testifies on his death bead about the Trinity and then Jacob is given tours of both Heaven and Hell.
51. Testament of Moses (1st Century CE) An expanded farewell address to Joshua by Moses.
52. Joseph and Aseneth (1st Century BCE –2nd Century CE) The story about the marriage of Joseph to the pagan Egyptian priest’s daughter.
53. History of Joseph (Pre-4th Century CE) A book that is an expansion of the Joseph story.
54. Prayer of Joseph (1st Century CE) A text which states that the patriarch Jacob was really the incarnation of the angel Israel.
55. Jubilees (2nd Century BCE) An account of things revealed to Moses during his 40 days on Mount Sinai (Ex. 24: 18).
56. 1 Maccabees (Last Quarter of the 2nd Century BCE) A factual and historical account of the Jewish struggles for religious and political independence from the accession of Antiochus Epiphanes to the death of Simon the Maccabaeus (175 – 135 BCE).
57. 2 Maccabees (Pre 63 BCE) A second account of the Maccabaean struggle compiled from the larger five books of Jason of Cyrene.
58. 3 Maccabees (1st Century BCE) A testament as to how the King of Egypt (Ptolemy IV Philopator ) deports a large number of Jews from Jerusalem to Alexandria in order to murder them only to repent and then protect them.
59. 4 Maccabees (1st Century CE) A book that uses philosophical discourse to encourages Jewish martyrdom and uses Eleazar, a mother and her seven sons as examples.
60. Prayer of Manasseh (2nd Century BCE –1st Century CE) This text is attributed to the wickedest king of Judah (687 – 642 BCE) in which he confesses his sins and pleads for forgiveness before God. “And now behold I am bending the knees of my heart before you.”
61. Syriac Menander (3 Century CE) Jewish wisdom literature in the form of practical rules for moral and ethics. “Before everything, fear God, . . .”
62. Orphica (2nd Century BCE – 1st Century CE) Revels new theological concepts about God.
63. Philo the Epic Poet (3rd – 2nd Century BCE) Quoted by Eusebius in his Praeparatio Evangelica
64. Pseudo-Philo (1st Century CE) A testament of the history of Israel from Adam to David presenting extra Biblical stories.
65. Pseudo-Phocylides (1st Century BCE –1st Century CE) A book of wisdom on how to live daily life claiming and claims that Greek ethics agree with Jewish Law. “Phocylides, the wisest of men, sets forth these counsels of God by his holy judgments, gifts of blessings.”
66. The Lives of the Prophets (1st Century CE) From the book’s own title: “The names of the prophets, and where they are from, and where they died and how, and where they lie.
67. History of the Rechabites (1st –4th Centuries CE) An account of a virtuous man named Zosimus’ supernatural travel to meet the Blessed Ones (the Rechabites).
68. Apocalypse of Sedrach (2nd –5th Century CE) Pious Sedrach is taken up into Heaven to question God about the creation.
69. Treatise of Shem (1st Century CE) This son of Noah describes the characteristics of the year based on the signs of the zodiac.
70. Ecclesiasticus / Wisdom of Jesus the son of Sirach (Early 2nd Century BCE) Like the canonical Book of Proverbs, it stresses the moral and ethical guide for Godliness.
71. Sibylline Oracles (2nd Century BCE though the 7th Century CE) Pagan oracles interpolated, falsified and manipulated by both Jews and Christians for apologetic purposes.
72. Odes of Solomon (1st – 2nd Century CE) Praises attributed to King Solomon filled with Christian theology. “The Lord is on my head like a crown, and I shall never be without him.”
73. Psalms of Solomon (1st Century BCE) Eighteen Psalms by pious Jews about the capture of Jerusalem by the Romans. “I cried out to the Lord when I was severely troubled, to God when sinners set upon me.
74. The Wisdom of Solomon (Last part of the 1st Century BCE) A book written to counter act the theology of Ecclesiastes 7: 15 “In this meaningless life of mine I have seen both of these: the righteous perishing in their righteousness, and the wicked living long in their wickedness.” The work from which Paul gets his dogma of Original Sin. XXX sin?
75. Testament of Solomon (1st to 3rd Century CE) A book dealing with Solomon’s building the Temple of Jerusalem combined with ancient stories about magic, astrology, angelology, demonology and ancient medicine.
76. Theodotus (2nd – 1st Century BCE) Reveals that God’s Law can never be changed, especially circumcisions.
77. Testament of the Three Patriarchs (1st – 3rd Century CE) Christianized Jewish stories about the Patriarchs. For details on each see “The Testament of Abraham”, “The Testament of Isaac” and “The Testament of Jacob” in this article.
78. Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs (2nd Century BCE) A book about the last words of the twelve sons to a dying Jacob where each reflects on his own life; confessing his sins and prophesizes about Israel.
79. Apocalypse of Zephaniah (1st Century BCE –1st Century CE) A book about the ascension into the Heavens and a guide though its glories by an angel while seeing the blessings of the righteous and the torments of sinners. “And a spirit took me and brought me up into the fifth heaven.”

Books Mentioned in the Hebrew Bible and Used by the Late Unknown Old Testament Authors to Give Credence to Their Work
Reference: The Canonization of the Hebrew Scripture: The Talmudic and Midrashic Evidence by Sid Z. Leiman, The Connecticut Academy of the Arts and Sciences, 1976.

Name of Extra Biblical Book Followed by Its Location in the Bible
80. Book of the Wars of the Lord Numbers 21: 14
81. Book of Jashar Joshua 10: 13 and 1 Samuel 10: 25
82. Book of Song 1 Kings 8: 13
83. Book of the Acts of Solomon 1 Kings 11: 41
84. Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Israel 1 Kings 14: 19; 15: 31
85. Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Judah 1 Kings 14: 29; 15: 17
86. Book of Genealogy Nehemiah 7: 5
87. Book of the Kings of Israel 1 Chronicles 9:1 & 2 Chronicles 20: 34
88. Book of the of the Chronicles of King David 1 Chronicles 27: 24 (According to the LXX)
89. Chronicles of Samuel the Seer 1 Chronicles 29: 29
90. Chronicles of Nathan the Prophet 1 Chronicles 29: 29 & 2 Chronicles 9: 29
91. Chronicles of Gad the Seer 1 Chronicles 29: 29
92. Prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite 1 Chronicles 9: 29
93. Visions of Iddo the Seer 2 Chronicles12: 15
94. Chronicles of Shemaiah the Prophet 2 Chronicles12: 15
95. Midrash on the Prophet Iddo 2 Chronicles 13: 22
96. Book of the Kings of Judah and Israel 2 Chronicles 16: 11
97. Chronicles of Jehu the Son of Hanani 2 Chronicles 20: 34
98. Midrash on the Book of Kings 2 Chronicles 24: 27
99. Acts of Uzziah 2 Chronicles 26: 22
100. Chronicles of Hozai 2 Chronicles 33: 19
101. Book of Records / The Annals Esther 6: 1
102. Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Media and Persia Esther 10: 2

The Dead Sea Scrolls
Reference: Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, 2 vols. Edited by Lawrence Schiffman and James VanderKam, Oxford University Press, 2000.

(The languages of these texts are Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek and includes not only all the canonized books of the Hebrew Bible (except Esther), but also seven of the above Pseudepigraphic books. The date extends from 250 BCE to the end of the Second Temple Period from the eleven caves near Qumran, but also the caves of Wadi Murabba’at; Nahal Hever; Nahal Mishmar; Nahal Se’elimand the locations of Khirbet Mird and Masada.

Apart from the canonical Hebrew texts (some with additions), these texts fall into the following categories:

Previously Known Compositions used at Qumran (Not counted in my post)
Book of Ben Sira
Books of Enoch
Book of Jubilees
Aramaic Levi
Testament of Naphtali
Book of Tobit
Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs

Previously Unknown Compositions
103. Acts of a Greek King
104. Ages of Creation
105. Aramaic Apocalypse
106. Barki Nafshi
107. Beatitudes
108. Berakhot
109. Biblical Chronology
110. Catena
111. Damascus Document
112. Elect of God
113. Florilegium
114. Commentary on Genesis
115. Apocryphon on Genesis
116. Book of Giants
117. Book of Hagu
118. Hodayot
119. Targum of Job
120. Apocryphon of Joseph
121. Messianic Apocalypse
122. Miqtsat Ma’asei ha-Torah
123. Texts of Moses
124. Mysteries
125. New Jerusalem
126. Texts of Noah
127. Mysteries
128. Ordinances
129. Pesher Habakkuk
130. Pesher Hosea
131. Pesher Isaiah
132. Pesher Nahum
133. Pesher Psalms
134. Pesher Scroll
135. Reworked Pentateuch
136. Ritual of Marriage
137. Rock of Zion
138. Rule of the Blessings
139. Rule of the Community
140. Rule of the Congregation
141. Sapiential Work
142. Sereh-Damascus
143. Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice
144. Songs of the Sage
145. Tanhumin and Apocryphal Lamentations
146. Temple Scroll
147. Testimonia
148. War of the Sons of Light against the Sons of Darkness
149. Wiles of the Wicked Woman
150. Words of the Luminaries
151. Words of the Sage of the Sons of Dawn

Non-canonical New Testament Books
Reference: The Apocryphal New Testament: A Collection of Apocryphal Christian Literature in and English Translation based on M.R. James, Edited by J.K. Elliott, Oxford University Press, 1993.

Lost Gospels (No Longer Extent, but Mentioned by Others)

Jewish-Christian Gospels:
152. The Gospels according to the Hebrews
153. The Gospel of the Nazaraeans
154. The Gospel of the Ebonites
155. The Gospel of the Egyptians (Not the one from Nag Hammadi)
156. The Traditions of Matthias (Pre 3rd Century)
157. The Preaching of Peter
158. The Gospel of the Adversaries of the Law and the Prophets
159. The Memories of the Apostles
160. The Gospel of Eve
161. The Gospel of Apelles
162. The Gospel of Cerinthus
163. The Gospel of Valentinus
164. The Gospel of Andrew
165. Agrapha (A term used to refer to recorded words of Jesus outside of the canonical Gospels. Thus, Acts 20: 35; 1 Corinthians 7: 10, 9: 14 and 1Thessalonians 4: 15ff and two Uncial texts (D & W). Included also are not only those from the Talmud, but Patristic Sources. Much of this deals with the accretion of legends or the making of apocryphal stories.)

Fragments of Lost Gospels on Papyrus Not Quoted by Patristic Sources:
166. Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 840
167. Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 1081
168. Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 1224
169. Papyrus Cairensis 10735
170. Papyrus Egerton 2
171. The Strasbourg Fragment
172. Papyrus Berolinensis 11710
173. The Fayyum Fragment
174. The Merton Fragment
175. Papyrus Rylands 463

Birth and Infancy Gospels:
176. The Protevangelium of James
177. The Infancy Gospel of Thomas
178. The Gospel of Pseudo-Mathew
179. The Arabic Infancy Gospel
180. Arundel 404 (Liber de Infantia Salvatoris)
181. The History of Joseph the Carpenter

Other Infancy Narratives
182. Gospels of the Ministry and Passion
183. The Gospel of Thomas
184. The Gospel of Peter
185. The Gospel of Gamaliel

The Pilate Cycle:
186. The Gospel of Nicodemus
187. The Acts of Pilate
188. Christ’s Descent into Hell
189. The Letter of Pilate to Claudius
190. The Letter of Pilate to Tiberius
191. Paradosis Pilati
192. Anaphora Pilati
193. Vindicta Salvatoris
194. Mors Pilati
195. The Narrative of Joseph of Arimathaea
196. The Letters of Pilate and Herod
197. The Letter of Tiberius to Pilate

Apocryphal Acts
198. The Acts of Andrew
199. The Acts of John
200. Secondary Acts of John
201. The Acts of Paul
202. Secondary Acts of Paul
203. The Acts of Peter
204. Secondary Acts of Peter
205. The Pseudo-Clementine Literature
206. The Acts of Thomas
207. Other Apocryphal Acts

Apocryphal Epistles
208. The Letters of Christ and Abgar
209. The letters of Lentulus
210. The Epistle to the Laodiceans
211. The Correspondence of Paul and Seneca
212. The Epistles to Alexandrians
213. The Epistle of the Apostles

Apocryphal Apocalypses
214. The Apocalypse of Peter
215. The Apocalypse of Paul
216. The Apocalypse of Thomas
217. The Questions of Bartholomew and the Book of the Resurrection of Jesus Christ by Bartholomew the Apostle
218. The Letter of James
219. The Apocalypse of Zephaniah
220. The Apocalypse of Elias (Elijah)
221. The Apocalypse of Stephen
222. The Apocalypse of John
223. The Apocalypse of Bartholemew
224. The Apocalypse of Zechariah
225. 5th and 6th Ezra
226. The Book of Elchasai
227. The Apocalypses of the Virgin
228. The Assumption of the Virgin

Apostolic Fathers
Reference: The Apostolic Fathers: Greek Texts and English Translations Edited by Michael W. Holmes, Baker Academic; 3Rev Ed edition, 2007

229. 1 Clement (Late 1st Century CE) The Bishop of Rome writes to the leaders of the church at Corinth dealing with a schism.
230. 2 Clement (Pre 170 CE) An ancient sermon by an unknown author.

Epistles of Ignatius: (First half of the 2nd Century BC)
231. To the Ephesians
232. To the Magnesians
233. To the Trallians
234. To the Romans
235. To the Philadelphians
236. To the Smyrnaeans
237. To Polycarp

238. The Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians (Pre 155 CE) A warning against apostasy.
239. The Teaching the Twelve Apostles or Didache ( 2nd Century CE ) A Christian manual on morals and church practice.
240. The Epistle of Barnabas (Pre 150 CE ) Written to warn Christians about Jewish interpretation of the Old Testament.
241. The Shepherd of Hermas (148 CE) An apocalypse consisting of a series of revelations to Hermas.
242. The Martyrdom of Polycarp (156 CE) An account of Polycarp’s martyrdom.
243. The Epistle to Diognetus (2nd or 3rd Century CE) A letter written by a Christian to an unknown inquirer.
244. Fragment of Papias (Early 2nd Century CE) “Papias provides some of the very earliest testimony about the early church’s stance on the millennium and the authorship of Matthew, Mark John and Revelation."
245. The Traditions of the Elders (Early 2nd Century CE)

The Nag Hammadi Scriptures
Reference: The Nag Hammadi Scriptures: The International Edition, edited by Marvin Meyers, New York: Harper Collins, 2007.
(These Coptic codices were found in Egypt in 1945, but it was soon determined that the original language was Greek. The texts were collected by early Egyptian Christians and provide an advance philosophical theology on par with the great Christological controversies of the latter orthodox church councils. The allegorical interpretations of Paul as well as his dichotomy between the flesh and the spirit, place much of his theology in the Gnostic camp.(6)  I started including dates for the final composition of these texts, but stopped due to time.

246. The Prayer of the Apostle Paul (Post 150 CE)
247. The Secret Book of James (Pre 150 CE)
248. The Gospel of Truth (Likely between 140 – 180 CE)
249. The Treatise on the Resurrection (150 CE)
250. The Tripartite Tractate (Pre 250 CE)
251. The Secret Book of John (Pre 185 CE)
252. The Gospel of Thomas (Pre 200 CE)
253. The Gospel of Philip (2nd Century CE)
254. The Nature of Rulers (Early 3rd Century CE)
255. The Hypostasis of the Archons (3rd Century CE)
256. On the Origin of the World (Pre 300 CE)
257. The Exegesis of the Soul (Pre 250 CE)
258. The Book of Thomas (Pre 250 CE)
259. The Gospel of the Egyptians
260. Eugnostos the Blessed (1st Century BCE)
261. The Wisdom of Jesus Christ (Pre 2nd Century CE)
262. The Dialogue of the Savior
263. The Revelation of Paul (Pre 2nd Century CE)
264. The First Revelation of James
265. The Second Revelation of James
266. The Revelation of Adam
267. The Acts of Peter and the Twelve Apostles
268. Thunder
269. Authoritative Discourse
270. The Concept of Our Great Power
271. The Discourse on the Eighth and Ninth
272. The Prayer of Thanksgiving
273. Except from the Perfect Mind
274. Except from the Perfect Discourse
275. The Paraphrase of Shem
276. The Second Discourse of the Great Seth
277. The Revelation of Peter
278. The Teachings of Silvanus
279. The Three Steles of Seth
280. Zostrianos
281. The Letter of Peter to Philip
282. Melchizedek
283. The Thought of Norea
284. The Testimony of Truth
285. Marsanes
286. The Interpretation of Knowledge
287. Valentinian Exposition with Valentinian Liturgical Readings
288. Allogenes the Stranger
289. Hypsiphrone
290. The Sentences of Sextus (200 CE)
291. Three Forms of Frist Thought
292. The Gospel of Mary
293. The Acts of Peter
294. The Gospel of Judas(Late 3rd to Early 4th Century CE)
295. The Book of Allogenes


1) See P. Kyle McCarter's  discussion on these two tiny silver scrolls: The Ketef Hinnom Amulets in The Context of Scripture: Vol. 2, Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World, Edited by W.W. Hallo , Leiden, E.J. Brill, 2000. p. 221

2)  E. Tov:  Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible, 3ed, Minneapolis, Fortress Press. p. 111

3) This fact is clearly stated by Brent Nongbri:

What emerges from this survey is nothing surprising to papyrologists: paleography is not the most effective method for dating texts, particularly those written in a literary hand. Roberts himself noted this point in his edition of P52. The real problem is the way scholars of the New Testament have used and abused papyrological evidence. I have not radically revised Roberts's work. I have not provided any third-century documentary papyri that are absolute "dead ringers" for the handwriting of P52, and even had I done so, that would not force us to date P52 at some exact point in the third century. Paleographic evidence does not work that way. What I have done is to show that any serious consideration of the window of possible dates for P52 must include dates in the later second and early third centuries. Thus, P52 cannot be used as evidence to silence other debates about the existence (or non-existence) of the Gospel of John in the first half of the second century. Only a papyrus containing an explicit date or one found in a clear archaeological stratigraphic context could do the work scholars want P52 to do. As it stands now, the papyrological evidence should take a second place to other forms of evidence in addressing debates about the dating of the Fourth Gospel.”
This article is from the Harvard Theological Review by Brent Nongbri of Yale University on the dating of P52 [Brent Nongbri, "The Use and Abuse of P52: Papyrological Pitfalls in the Dating of the Fourth Gospel," HTR 98.1 (2005) 23-48.

4) David Farmer, The Oxford Dictionary of Saints, 5th ed. Revised, Oxford University Press, 2011

5) James H. Charlesworth, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha and the New Testament: Prolegomena for the Study of Christian Origins, Cambridge University Press, 1985.

6) Elaine Pagels, The Gnostic Paul: Gnostic Exegesis of the Pauline Letters, Philadelphia: Fortress 1975